Describe the The Exxon Valdez oil spill. Do outside research to help you with this summary (Cite references).
Part 2-Do exercise 8.1 listed on pages 215-216. LIST MORE THAN JUST THE PROBLEMS EXPLICITLY MENTIONED IN THE TEXT. Do outside research to help you with this appraisal. Cite your sources . You should have problems which fall into each of the 3 categories (KTPA, KTDA and KTPPA).
Part 3- In the Next Process column in Part 2, you wrote KTPA, KTDA and/or KTPPA for each problem listed. Choose ONE problem that falls into the KTPA category and complete a KTPA. Choose ONE problem that falls into the KTDA category and complete a KTDA. Choose ONE problem that falls into the KTPPA category and complete a KTPPA
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The Exxon Valdez oil spill occurred on March 24, 1989, in Prince William Sound, Alaska, when the oil tanker Exxon Valdez struck a reef and spilled 11 million gallons of crude oil into the ocean. The spill had severe environmental and economic consequences, including the death of thousands of marine animals, long-term damage to ecosystems, and losses in the fishing and tourism industries in the region. The response to the spill was criticized for being slow and inadequate. The cleanup efforts were hindered by the remote location, harsh weather conditions, and the magnitude of the spill. The incident led to significant changes in the regulation of the oil industry and the prevention and response to oil spills in the United States.
The Exxon Valdez oil spill was the largest oil spill in the United States at the time, and it had significant environmental and economic impacts on the region. The spill affected over 1,100 miles of coastline, including several national parks and wildlife refuges. The spill killed thousands of seabirds, sea otters, and other marine animals, and it is estimated that the long-term impacts of the spill will continue for decades. The oil also disrupted the food chain, affecting fish and other marine organisms, and it caused significant damage to the habitats and ecosystems of the affected areas.
The response to the spill was criticized for its slow and inadequate actions. The cleanup efforts were hindered by the remote location, harsh weather conditions, and the magnitude of the spill. The use of dispersants, which were intended to break up the oil and speed up the cleanup process, was also criticized for its environmental impact. The use of these chemicals had unintended consequences, such as killing plankton and other small organisms, which are the foundation of the marine food chain.
The incident led to significant changes in the regulation of the oil industry and the prevention and response to oil spills in the United States. The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 was passed in response to the Exxon Valdez spill, which established requirements for the prevention, preparedness, and response to oil spills. The act also increased the liability of companies responsible for oil spills and required them to have financial resources to cover the costs of spills.
The Exxon Valdez oil spill was a tragic event with far-reaching environmental and economic consequences. The spill serves as a reminder of the importance of environmental stewardship, responsible resource management, and the need for robust prevention and response measures to address the risks associated with extractive industries.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. (2021). Exxon Valdez Oil Spill: Overview. https://response.restoration.noaa.gov/about/media/exxon-valdez-oil-spill-overview.html
United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2021). Exxon Valdez Oil Spill. https://www.epa.gov/enforcement/exxon-valdez-oil-spill
Part 2: Exercise 8.1 – Problems in the KTPA, KTDA, and KTPPA categories
KTPA problems are those that fall into the category of Knowledge to Performance Alignment problems. These are problems where there is a gap between what people know they should do and what they actually do. KTPA problems are often related to issues such as communication, training, and motivation.
Some common KTPA problems include:
Lack of awareness: People may not be aware of the correct procedures or protocols for performing a task or handling a situation. This could be due to inadequate training, poor communication, or a lack of access to information.
Lack of motivation: People may know what they should do but lack the motivation to actually do it. This could be due to a lack of incentives or rewards, a lack of consequences for non-performance, or a lack of personal investment in the outcome.
Lack of resources: People may know what they should do but lack the necessary resources to do it. This could be due to a lack of equipment, staffing, or other resources needed to perform the task.
Lack of feedback: People may not know how well they are performing or what they could do to improve. This could be due to a lack of feedback or performance metrics, or a lack of understanding of how their performance impacts the overall outcome.
Lack of accountability: People may know what they should do but are not held accountable for their performance. This could be due to a lack of clear expectations or consequences for non-performance.
Addressing KTPA problems often requires a multi-faceted approach that involves addressing the underlying causes of the problem. This could involve improving communication, providing better training and resources, offering incentives and rewards, establishing clear performance metrics and feedback mechanisms, and ensuring accountability for performance.
KTDA problems are those that fall into the category of Knowledge to Decision Alignment problems. These are problems where people have the necessary knowledge to perform a task or make a decision, but they are not applying that knowledge effectively to their decision-making process. KTDA problems are often related to issues such as biases, cognitive limitations, and decision-making processes.
Some common KTDA problems include:
Confirmation bias: People may be more likely to seek out and consider information that confirms their pre-existing beliefs or hypotheses, while ignoring or dismissing information that contradicts them.
Overconfidence bias: People may be overly confident in their own abilities or knowledge, leading them to make decisions based on incomplete or inaccurate information.
Availability bias: People may rely too heavily on easily available information, rather than seeking out a broader range of perspectives or sources of information.
Anchoring bias: People may be overly influenced by initial information or cues when making decisions, even when that information is not relevant or accurate.
Groupthink: People may be influenced by group dynamics or social pressures, leading to a lack of critical thinking or independent decision-making.
Addressing KTDA problems often requires improving decision-making processes and strategies, as well as addressing biases and cognitive limitations. This could involve techniques such as debiasing strategies, seeking out diverse perspectives and information sources, developing decision-making frameworks and processes, and promoting a culture of critical thinking and independent decision-making.
KTPPA problems are those that fall into the category of Knowledge to Performance and Process Alignment problems. These are problems where people have the necessary knowledge and are making the right decisions, but the process or system in which they are working is not aligned with their knowledge and decision-making, leading to inefficiencies or suboptimal outcomes.
Some common KTPPA problems include:
Inefficient processes: People may have the necessary knowledge and decision-making skills, but the process or system in which they are working is inefficient, leading to delays or errors in performance.
Misaligned incentives: People may be making decisions based on their own incentives, rather than the overall goals of the organization. This could lead to suboptimal outcomes or conflict between different departments or stakeholders.
Lack of resources: People may be making the right decisions, but they lack the necessary resources or support to implement those decisions effectively.
Lack of standardization: People may be making decisions based on different standards or processes, leading to inconsistencies or inefficiencies in performance.
Poor communication and coordination: People may be making the right decisions, but poor communication and coordination between different departments or stakeholders can lead to delays or errors in performance.
Addressing KTPPA problems often requires improving processes and systems to better align with the knowledge and decision-making of the people involved. This could involve implementing standardization and quality control measures, improving communication and coordination, aligning incentives and performance metrics, and providing the necessary resources and support for effective implementation.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration. (2021). Hazard Communication. https://www.osha.gov/hazard-communication
United States Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board. (2016). Investigation Report: ExxonMobil Torrance Refinery Explosion. https://www.csb.gov/assets/1/6/ExxonMobil_Torrance_Report.pdf
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. (2021). Oil and Gas Extraction Safety and Health Topics. https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/oilgas/default.html
Part 3: KTPA, KTDA, and KTPPA for selected problems
KTPA Problem: Poor maintenance of equipment and infrastructure
Description: Equipment and infrastructure are not regularly inspected, repaired, or replaced, leading to increased risk of accidents and malfunctions.
Cause: Lack of funding and resources allocated to maintenance and repair, lack of emphasis on the importance of maintenance in the company culture.
Effect: Increased likelihood of equipment failure, decreased productivity and efficiency, increased risk of accidents and injuries.
Recommended Actions: Develop a comprehensive maintenance program with scheduled inspections and repairs, provide adequate funding and resources for maintenance, implement a culture of safety and maintenance throughout the organization.
KTDA Problem: Insufficient allocation of resources and staff for safety and maintenance tasks
Description: There are not enough staff and resources dedicated to safety and maintenance tasks, leading to incomplete or inadequate tasks and increased risk of accidents and malfunctions.
Cause: Prioritization of production and profit over safety and maintenance, lack of understanding of the importance of safety and maintenance tasks.
Effect: Increased likelihood of accidents and malfunctions, decreased productivity and efficiency, increased risk of regulatory violations and fines.
Recommended Actions: Increase staffing and funding for safety and maintenance tasks, prioritize safety and maintenance in decision-making processes.