Discuss the Degradation Mechanisms in Quantum Dot on Silicon Lasers.
Auger recombination: Auger recombination is a nonradiative recombination process that occurs when a carrier (an electron or hole) recombines with another carrier, and the excess energy is transferred to a third carrier, which is subsequently excited to a higher energy level. In QD-on-Si lasers, Auger recombination is a major source of efficiency droop, where the efficiency of the laser decreases at high injection currents. This mechanism is particularly problematic in QD lasers because of t
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Surface recombination: Surface recombination occurs when carriers recombine at the surface of the QD-on-Si structure, leading to a loss of efficiency and increased threshold current. This mechanism is particularly important in QD-on-Si lasers, as the QD active region is usually located close to the surface of the device. Surface recombination can be mitigated by passivating the surface of the device, for example, by depositing a thin layer of silicon oxide or nitride.
Defects and trap states: Defects and trap states in the QD-on-Si structure can capture carriers and lead to nonradiative recombination, reducing the efficiency and lifetime of the laser. These defects can be introduced during the growth or processing of the QD-on-Si structure, and their impact can be minimized by optimizing the growth conditions and processing steps.
Thermal effects: Thermal effects can also degrade the performance and lifetime of QD-on-Si lasers. The QD active region has a relatively low thermal conductivity, which can lead to a buildup of heat and a decrease in efficiency. Additionally, thermal stresses can induce defects and strain in the QD-on-Si structure, leading to increased threshold current and decreased efficiency.
In summary, QD-on-Si lasers are subject to several degradation mechanisms that limit their performance and lifetime. These mechanisms include Auger recombination, surface recombination, defects and trap states, and thermal effects. Minimizing these degradation mechanisms requires careful optimization of the growth and processing steps and the use of appropriate passivation and thermal management techniques.