What does the reasoned action framework (i.e., theory of reasoned action, theory of planned behavior, integrative model of behavioral prediction) say about why the audience currently texts and drives?

You have been tasked with developing a campaign to discourage young adults from texting and driving. Consider this context in answering the following questions.

Question 1
What does the reasoned action framework (i.e., theory of reasoned action, theory of planned behavior, integrative model of behavioral prediction) say about why the audience currently texts and drives? That is, how does the theory predict the current behavior?
What must your message(s) do to shift the audience from texting and driving to not texting and driving? Focus on the components of the theory to craft your response, and provide examples to demonstrate your knowledge of these components.
What other theories / models should you consider when designing your message(s)? Identify at least two from those we’ve covered, explain why you chose them, and explain how they can be used to better inform message creation.

Question 2
McGuire’s input–output framework identifies five key input communication factors (source, message, channel, receiver, destination). For each input communication factor, there are multiple variables that can increase persuasive impact, either independently or in combination.

Identify and fully explicate three major theories / models / approaches we’ve discussed in this class.
Note. This can be any theory, model, or approach we’ve discussed in class (excluding the reasoned action framework, if Question 1 is part of your exam). Some examples of what you can select include the elaboration likelihood model, affect, fear appeals, narrative persuasion, social cognitive theory, etc.
What does each of the theories, models, or approaches you identified in part A tell us about what variables are most important to consider for your campaign in relation to each of the input communication factors in McGuire’s framework? Use topic specific (i.e., texting and driving) examples to illustrate your points.

Question 3
After 6 months, you evaluate the effectiveness of your campaign efforts and find no change in texting and driving behavior among your target audience. (Note. This question can and should be addressed independent from the answer to your other questions.)

Drawing broadly from the theories and concepts in the course, explain four possible reasons for why your audience did not change their behavior, using topic-specific (i.e., texting and driving) examples to illustrate your points.
With the explanations that you identified in part A, what strategies would be particularly effective for you to take to improve your campaign? Proved at least four, and explain your rationales.

Answer & Explanation
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The Reasoned Action Framework (RAF) is a social psychological theory that aims to explain and predict human behavior. It includes several related theories, including the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), and the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction (IMBP). While these theories have been applied to many different behaviors, including texting and driving, they do not specifically address this behavior. However, they can be used to help understand why people may engage in texting and driving.

According to the TRA, people’s intentions to engage in a behavior are based on their attitudes towards

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Step-by-step explanation
the behavior and subjective norms surrounding it. Attitudes refer to a person’s evaluation of a behavior as good or bad, while subjective norms refer to the perceived social pressure to engage in a behavior. Applying this to texting and driving, a person may have a positive attitude towards texting and driving (e.g. feeling it’s not a big deal, that they can handle it) and perceive that their peers also engage in this behavior, which could increase their likelihood of doing it.

The TPB expands on the TRA by including perceived behavioral control, which refers to a person’s belief in their ability to perform the behavior. In the case of texting and driving, a person may believe that they can handle texting while driving without incident, even though it is dangerous.

The IMBP combines the TRA and TPB with additional factors such as habit, environmental constraints, and emotions. For example, a person may have a habit of checking their phone while driving, which could increase the likelihood of engaging in texting and driving.

Overall, these theories suggest that people may engage in texting and driving due to a combination of attitudes towards the behavior, perceived social norms, perceived behavioral control, habit, and other environmental and emotional factors.

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