During exercise, changes occur within the cardiovascular and respiratory system, describe these changes and why they occur to maintain internal balance.
Increased Heart Rate: During exercise, the heart rate increases to pump more blood to the working muscles. This is because the muscles require more oxygen and nutrients to produce energy for movement. The heart rate can increase up to 150-200 beats per minute during vigorous exercise.
Increased Stroke Volume: The amount of blood pumped out of the heart with each beat, called stroke volume, also increases during exercise. This allows more oxygen and nutrients to be delivered to
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Increased Cardiac Output: Cardiac output, which is the amount of blood pumped out of the heart per minute, increases during exercise due to the increased heart rate and stroke volume. This allows more oxygen and nutrients to be delivered to the body’s tissues, including the working muscles.
Increased Respiratory Rate: During exercise, the respiratory rate increases to provide more oxygen to the working muscles and remove excess carbon dioxide from the body. This occurs because the body’s demand for oxygen increases as exercise intensity increases.
Increased Tidal Volume: Tidal volume, which is the amount of air breathed in and out with each breath, also increases during exercise. This allows for more oxygen to be taken in and carbon dioxide to be expelled.
All of these changes occur to maintain internal balance, or homeostasis, during exercise. The body needs to provide enough oxygen and nutrients to the working muscles to produce energy for movement. By increasing the heart rate, stroke volume, and cardiac output, more blood is delivered to the working muscles to meet their oxygen and nutrient needs. Additionally, increasing the respiratory rate and tidal volume allows for more oxygen to be taken in and more carbon dioxide to be expelled, helping to maintain the body’s acid-base balance.