Discuss biological explanations of aggression, such as , the role of brain structure, neurotransmitters, hormones and evolution.

Assessed learning outcomes:1. Show an understanding of the biological nature of aggression in humans and animals.2. Evaluate biological theories of aggression including ways in which different biological theories and approaches can complement one another.Task: Discuss biological explanations of aggression, such as , the role of brain structure, neurotransmitters, hormones and evolution. Refer to both animals and human research in your answers.
Answer & Explanation
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Biological explanations of aggression suggest that aggression is primarily determined by biological factors, such as brain structure, neurotransmitters, hormones, and evolution. These factors are thought to interact with environmental factors to shape an individual’s tendency towards aggression.

Brain Structure: Studies have found that certain regions of the brain, particularly the amygdala and prefrontal cortex, are associated with aggression. The amygdala is involved in the processing of emotions and the prefrontal cortex is responsible for decision making and impulse control. Abnormalities in these brain regions have been linked to increased aggression.

Neurotransmitters: Neu

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Step-by-step explanation
rotransmitters are chemicals that carry signals between neurons in the brain. Studies have found that imbalances in neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine can lead to increased aggression. For example, low levels of serotonin have been associated with increased aggression and impulsivity.

Hormones: Hormones such as testosterone, cortisol, and oxytocin have been linked to aggression. Testosterone is associated with increased aggression in males and females, and high levels of cortisol (a stress hormone) have been linked to aggressive behavior. In contrast, oxytocin, sometimes called the “love hormone,” has been associated with prosocial behavior and decreased aggression.

Evolution: Aggression is thought to have evolved as a means of survival and reproduction. For example, aggression may have helped early humans defend themselves and their resources against threats from predators and other humans. In modern times, aggression may be expressed in different ways, such as competitive sports or even warfare.

Overall, biological explanations of aggression suggest that aggression is a complex phenomenon that is influenced by a range of biological and environmental factors. By understanding these factors, researchers may be able to develop more effective treatments and interventions for individuals who struggle with aggressive tendencies.

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