Write a paper discussing the Contemporary issues on criminal justice: Law, policy and practice.

Question: The police exercise a wide discretion when it comes to Stop and Search. This abusive power has fuelled concerns around the police being institutionally racist. Recent reforms have not gone far enough. Urgent review is needed and the law must change. Discuss. I have attached essential readings including some extra academic sources. I have also Included an essay prep answer on stop and search. This essay is worth 80% of the module, very important please. Hoping for a first or 2:1 please, do let me know if any additional information is needed
Answer & Explanation
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Criminal justice is a system that is designed to ensure public safety by enforcing laws and punishing individuals who have violated them. It is an essential component of any democratic society and plays a significant role in maintaining social order. However, criminal justice systems worldwide are facing a range of contemporary issues that impact law, policy, and practice. This paper will discuss some of the critical contemporary issues on criminal justice systems.

Police Use of Force

Police use of force has been one of the most critical contemporary issues in criminal justice systems. The use of excessive force by police officers has resulted in several high-profile incidents, leading to protests and social unrest in many countries. In many cases, police officers have used deadly force, resulting in the loss of lives, especially among Black Americans. The issue has raised concerns about the training of police officers, the accountability of police departments, and the need for policy reform to address police brutality.

Criminal Justice Reform

Another contemporary issue in criminal justice systems is the need for criminal justice reform. Many people believe that the current criminal justice system is unfair, discriminatory, and ineffective. The system has

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Step-by-step explanation
been criticized for disproportionately targeting people of color, minorities, and low-income individuals. Additionally, the criminal justice system has been criticized for being punitive rather than rehabilitative. Criminal justice reform advocates are calling for changes that will reduce the number of people incarcerated, address systemic racism, and provide better rehabilitation programs to reduce recidivism rates.

Mass Incarceration

Mass incarceration is another significant contemporary issue in criminal justice systems. The United States has one of the highest incarceration rates globally, with approximately 2.3 million people currently incarcerated. The high rate of incarceration has been linked to a range of social problems, including poverty, lack of educational and employment opportunities, and mental health issues. Mass incarceration has also been linked to systemic racism, with people of color disproportionately represented in the prison population.

Juvenile Justice

Juvenile justice is another critical contemporary issue in criminal justice systems. The treatment of juveniles in the criminal justice system has been criticized for being overly punitive and failing to consider the unique needs of young offenders. Juveniles who are incarcerated are at a higher risk of experiencing mental health issues, substance abuse, and physical and sexual abuse. Advocates of juvenile justice reform are calling for changes that will address these issues and provide better support for young offenders.

Technology and Criminal Justice

Advancements in technology have transformed criminal justice systems worldwide, presenting both opportunities and challenges. One of the most significant advantages of technology is the ability to gather and analyze vast amounts of data, which can help law enforcement agencies predict and prevent crime. However, technology has also been criticized for its potential to violate privacy rights, racial bias in algorithms, and false positives.


The contemporary issues on criminal justice are diverse and multifaceted. They require a coordinated approach that addresses the underlying causes of criminal behavior, promotes equity and justice, and ensures public safety. Criminal justice systems worldwide need to embrace a holistic approach that considers the unique needs of individuals while ensuring accountability, transparency, and respect for human rights. Policymakers, practitioners, and stakeholders need to collaborate to create a more equitable and just criminal justice system.

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