Write an essay on the European colonization.
Pacific Ocean. These same European powers would also increasingly demand more enslaved
Africans to labor in the Americas and the Pacific, which would lead to the creation of the
Transatlantic Slave Trade.
According to many historians, this era would usher in the “modern age” of history.
Using 4 key terms from the list* at the bottom of this document, explain:
• The political, technological, and religious factors that led to European colonization OR
• The processes of European colonization OR
• The effects of European colonization
NOTE: I am offering you THREE (3) different prompts. You can write about the factors OR
processes OR the effects.
Please do not write about all three.
Mini-paper draft requirements:
o All facts mentioned in the essay must have citations: Chicago style citations as footnotes
▪ From lecture: Stefanie Lira, “NAME OF LECTURE” (lecture, History 102:
World Civilizations since 1500, Santa Ana College, CA, Month date, 2021).
▪ From textbook: First name Last name of editor, Title of Book (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), page number.
o Spacing & font: 1-inch margins, 12 pt. Times New Roman font, double-spaced (if hand-
written, try to match this format as much as possible)
o Page length: 3-4 pages long
o Your paper must have a clear thesis.
o You must use historical facts from our class’s materials (readings, lectures, etc.) to
support your statements.
o Example of the incorrect and correct portrayal of historical facts:
▪ Incorrect: “I state that sugar was a commodity that had bad effects on people.”
▪ Correct: “Based on the research of anthropologist Sidney W. Mintz, sugar
turned into a commodity because of a series of human-made decisions.
These human-made decisions resulted in the colonization of the Americas
and the creation of the Transatlantic Slave Trade.”1
*List of Key Terms you may use in your Mini-paper
• Columbian Exchange
• Manila Galleons
• Joint-Stock Company
• Epidemic Disease
• Magnetic Compass and Astrolabe
• Constitutional states
• Spanish Inquisition
• Scientific Revolution
• Geechee & Gullah
• Middle passage
• Olaudah Equiano
The colonization of the Americas began in the late 15th century when Christopher Columbus sailed across the Atlantic in search of a new route to the East Indies. Instead, he landed on an island in the Bahamas, which he named San Salvador. Columbus’ voyage sparked a wave of European exploration and colonization in the Americas, as Spanish and Portuguese expeditions established settlements and claimed territories across the Caribbean and South America.
The Spanish conquest of the Aztecs in Mexico and the Incas in Peru was a defining moment in the colonization of the Americas. These conquests were achieved through the use of advanced weaponry, superior military tactics, and the spread of disease that devastated indigenou
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In North America, the British and French established colonies along the Atlantic coast, with the British colonies eventually forming the United States. The colonization of North America was characterized by the displacement and subjugation of indigenous peoples, as well as the importation of African slaves to work on plantations in the southern colonies.
In Africa, European colonization began in the late 19th century, when European powers met at the Berlin Conference to divide the continent into spheres of influence. This led to the colonization of virtually the entire continent, with the exception of Ethiopia and Liberia. European powers exploited African resources, including rubber, diamonds, and other minerals, and established plantation economies based on forced labor.
The colonization of Asia was also marked by exploitation and subjugation. The British colonized India, where they imposed a system of indirect rule that maintained the authority of local rulers while exploiting Indian resources. The French, Dutch, and Portuguese also established colonies in Southeast Asia, including Vietnam, Indonesia, and the Philippines, where they extracted resources and controlled trade.
The impact of European colonization on the lands and peoples they claimed was profound and lasting. Colonization led to the displacement, enslavement, and exploitation of millions of people, and the imposition of European culture and values on non-European societies. However, colonization also brought about new technologies, ideas, and trade networks that shaped the modern world.
Today, the legacy of colonization remains a contentious issue, with ongoing debates over reparations, the preservation of indigenous cultures, and the impact of colonialism on economic development and political stability. However, by understanding the history and impact of European colonization, we can begin to grapple with its complex legacy and work towards a more just and equitable future.