Discuss the Evolution of Greek and Roman civilizations.

Drawn from Chapters 1 through 6 of Breisach’s Historiography: Ancient, Medieval, and Modern, and supplemented by scholarly materials available through the APUS Online Library or elsewhere, write your own interpretative account of the evolution of historiography in either Greek or Roman civilization. In your summary, indicate the contributions of your selection (be it Greek or Roman) to early historical scholarship. In others words, the essay is about Greek or Roman historians in the context in which they wrote their histories – the essay is not about the legacy of Greek or Roman historians today. You may focus on one historian or a group of historians from either Greece or Rome. Many students often do little more than take notes from Breisach. This would be passable but it is not what I am looking for. It is for this reason that you must also do outside research on the topic. Use Breisach, but use other sources as well. You should also trust yourself – use what you know to discuss something with which you may not be completely familiar.

SOURCES – You will find lengthy passages from: The Ancient History Sourcebook and the Internet Classics Archive

The essays must target 1250 words and should begin with a clear and easily identifiable thesis statement and include a minimum of five primary and secondary sources. All essays must have a suitable title. Footnotes are required. All sources, as well as the bibliography, must conform to Turabian’s A Manual for Writers, 9th ed.

The essay you submit should be carefully scrutinized for errors. I tire quickly with essays that use “their” instead of “there” or “where” instead of “were.” Proofread, and then proofread some more. NOTE: In general, all-purpose internet sources cannot be used for citation purposes. Exceptions are the scholarly websites and documents available through the APUS Online Library, or other academic websites. While indeed useful for a quick reference, Wikipedia is not considered a valid academic source. [The HE is worth 10% of your final grade.]

(HE1) Historiographical Essay 1(HE1) Historiographical Essay 1

Answer & Explanation
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Greek and Roman civilizations are among the most important and influential civilizations in world history, and their impact can still be seen today. The evolution of these civilizations is a complex and multifaceted topic that spans thousands of years, so this discussion will provide a brief overview of some of the most significant developments.

Greek Civilization:

The Greek civilization emerged around 800 BCE and lasted until the 4th century CE. It was a period of great cultural and intellectual flourishing, characterized by significant achievements in the fields of philosophy, literature, art, and science.

The early Greeks lived in small, independent city-states, each with its own unique culture and political structure. Athens and Sparta were the two most powerful city-states, with Athens known for its democracy and Sparta for its military prowess. The Greeks also developed a system of colonization, spreading their culture and influence across the Mediterranean world.

During the classical period (5th-4th centuries BCE), the Greeks made significant advances in philosophy, with Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle amon

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Step-by-step explanation
g the most famous thinkers of the time. In literature, Homer’s epic poems the Iliad and the Odyssey set the standard for Greek storytelling, while the playwrights Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides pioneered the genre of tragedy.

In art, the Greeks created some of the most iconic sculptures of all time, with the Parthenon in Athens being a prime example of their architectural prowess. The Greeks also made important scientific discoveries, with figures like Pythagoras and Hippocrates making significant contributions to mathematics and medicine, respectively.

Roman Civilization:

The Roman civilization emerged in the 8th century BCE and lasted until the 5th century CE. It was characterized by its powerful military, sophisticated legal system, and vast network of roads and infrastructure.

The early Romans were ruled by kings, but in 509 BCE they established a republic, which lasted until the rise of Julius Caesar and the subsequent transition to an empire in 27 BCE. During the republic, the Romans developed a complex system of government, with two consuls elected each year to govern the state.

The Roman military was among the most powerful in the ancient world, with its soldiers renowned for their discipline and effectiveness. The Romans also developed a sophisticated legal system, with the Twelve Tables codifying the law in the 5th century BCE.

In architecture, the Romans made significant advances, with the Colosseum and the Pantheon being among the most iconic structures of the time. The Romans also made significant contributions to engineering, with their vast network of roads and aqueducts enabling them to connect their far-flung empire.

In literature, the Romans were heavily influenced by the Greeks, with figures like Virgil and Ovid adapting Greek myths and storytelling techniques to the Roman context. The Romans also made significant contributions to philosophy, with figures like Cicero and Seneca making important contributions to ethics and political theory.

In conclusion, the evolution of Greek and Roman civilizations was marked by significant achievements in a wide range of fields. Their legacies have had a lasting impact on Western culture, influencing everything from art and literature to politics and philosophy.

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