Discuss Peripheral Vascular Disease (PVD) & Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD).

The term peripheral vascular disease (PVD) & peripheral artery disease (PAD) are common concerns. PAD is a type of PVD. Peripheral Vascular Disease causes problems that alter blood flow through both the arteries and veins. Peripheral artery disease causes problems only with blood flow through the arteries. Answer the following:

1. Analyze what are the signs and symptoms of peripheral artery disease (PVD) and discuss what Diagnostic Studies are utilized.

2. Develop a plan of care for patients at risk for PAD/PVD, potential complications when untreated and determine how a professional nurse would educate patients regarding health promotion and prevention.

3. Select the treatment goals for PAD/PVD and discuss & evaluate how a nurse would determine if treatment is effective.

4. Describe what physical assessment findings would be found which would determine the presence of PAD/PVD and in detail, describe what questions a nurse would ask during an assessment/admission interview to determine the presence of PAD/PVD.
5. Identify at least three different medications used to treat PAD/PVD, and describe the nursing implications and patient teaching for each of the medications.

6. Discuss the pros and cons of angioplasty, bypass surgery and thrombolytic therapy, and determine nursing care following each of these treatments.

Also, include this source, Lewis’s Medical-Surgical Nursing: Assessment and Management of Clinical Problems, 12th Edition, Mariann M. Harding, Jeffrey Kwong, Debra Hagler, and Courtney Reinisch, include the page on the citation.

Other sources should have come from reliable website sources in the USA, evidence-based, reliable journals, books, websites, and searchable on the reliable database, such as EBSCOhost and ProQuest. Sources should be at least five years (2019 onwards).

Answer & Explanation
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Peripheral Vascular Disease (PVD) is a condition that refers to any disorder or damage that affects the blood vessels outside of the heart and brain. This includes both arteries and veins that carry blood throughout the body. Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) is a type of PVD that specifically affects the arteries, causing a narrowing or blockage that can lead to reduced blood flow to the limbs, usually the legs.

Causes of PVD and PAD can include atherosclerosis (a buildup of plaque in the arteries), injury to the blood vessels, blood clots, inflammation, or genetic conditions. Risk factors for developing these conditions include smoking,

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Step-by-step explanation
high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, obesity, age, and a family history of PVD or PAD.

Symptoms of PVD and PAD can include leg pain or cramping while walking or exercising (known as intermittent claudication), leg numbness or weakness, coldness or discoloration in the limbs, slow healing wounds or sores on the feet or legs, and decreased hair growth on the legs or feet. In severe cases, PAD can lead to gangrene or even amputation.

Diagnosis of PVD and PAD typically involves a physical exam, medical history review, and imaging tests such as a Doppler ultrasound, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), or angiography. Treatment options can include lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, regular exercise, and a healthy diet, as well as medications to improve blood flow, prevent blood clots, or control risk factors such as high blood pressure or cholesterol. In some cases, procedures such as angioplasty or stenting may be necessary to open up blocked arteries, and surgery may be required for severe cases.

Overall, early detection and management of PVD and PAD are important to prevent complications and improve outcomes. If you are experiencing symptoms of PVD or PAD, it is important to speak with a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and treatment.

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