IN 3000 WORDS WRITE A PAPER DISCUSSING HOW THE BONES AND MUSCLE WORK TOGETHER TO FLEX THE KNEE.
Anatomy of the Knee Joint:
The knee joint is the largest joint in the human body and is composed of three bones: the femur (thigh bone), tibia (shin bone), and patella (kneecap). The femur and tibia are the primary bones that form the knee joint, while the patella is a small bone that lies on the front of the knee and provides protection to the joint.
The femur is the longest bone in the human body and forms the upper part of the knee joint. It has a rounded end that fits
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The patella is a small, triangular bone that lies on the front of the knee joint. It is embedded in the tendon of the quadriceps muscle and helps to protect the knee joint from direct impact.
The muscles Involved in Knee Flexion:
The knee joint is moved by a combination of muscles that cross the joint. These muscles are responsible for flexion and extension of the knee joint. The primary muscles involved in knee flexion are the hamstring muscles, which are located on the back of the thigh, and the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, which are located in the calf.
The hamstring muscles are a group of three muscles that originate from the ischial tuberosity (the bony protrusion on the pelvis) and insert on the tibia and fibula bones. These muscles are responsible for knee flexion and hip extension. The three muscles that make up the hamstring group are the biceps femoris, semimembranosus, and semitendinosus muscles.
The gastrocnemius and soleus muscles are located in the calf and are responsible for plantar flexion of the ankle joint. However, they also contribute to knee flexion by providing additional force to the hamstring muscles during knee flexion.
The Biomechanics of Knee Flexion:
Knee flexion is a movement that occurs when the angle between the femur and tibia decreases. It is the movement that allows us to bend our knee and brings our heel closer to our buttocks. Knee flexion is an essential movement in activities that involve walking, running, jumping, and climbing.
During knee flexion, the hamstring muscles contract, causing the tibia to move backward and the femur to move forward. The gastrocnemius and soleus muscles also contract, providing additional force to the hamstring muscles. The movement of the femur and tibia during knee flexion is facilitated by the articular cartilage, which provides a smooth surface for the bones to glide on.
The ligaments of the knee joint also play a crucial role in knee flexion. The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) prevent the femur and tibia from sliding