Write an essay on neurological research on Panic disorder and schizopheria

There are two 1000 words essay question, The first one is “Describe the main theories of panic disorder. Compare and critically evaluate them in light of empirical evidence.” The second one is “Illustrate the aetiology and symptoms of cognitive impairments in patients with schizophrenia. Also, critically evaluate treatment approaches for older SCZ patients with cognitive decline.” You must answer these two questions using neurological research evidence. Further instructions of the essays can be found in a file I uploaded call ” Neuroscience assignment 2″.
Answer & Explanation
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Panic disorder and schizophrenia are two distinct neurological disorders that have received a lot of research attention in recent years. While panic disorder is characterized by sudden, intense attacks of fear or panic, schizophrenia is a chronic mental illness that affects a person’s ability to think, feel, and behave clearly. In this essay, we will examine some of the latest neurological research on panic disorder and schizophrenia.

Panic disorder is a type of anxiety disorder that affects approximately 2-3% of the general population. Neurological studies have revealed that panic attacks are associated with increased activity in the amygdala, a region of the brain that is involved in the processing of emotions, particularly fear. Researchers have also found that people with panic disorder have a more reactive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which is responsible for regulating the body’s response to stress.

Additionally, studies have shown that people with panic disorder have an increased sensitivity to carbon dioxide (CO2), which can trigger panic attacks. This sensitivity may be related to abnormalities in the serotonin

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Step-by-step explanation
system, which plays a role in regulating mood and anxiety. Researchers have also found that people with panic disorder have alterations in the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system, which is involved in inhibiting neural activity and regulating anxiety.

Schizophrenia, on the other hand, is a complex mental illness that affects approximately 1% of the population worldwide. Neurological studies have revealed that people with schizophrenia have abnormalities in multiple brain regions, including the prefrontal cortex, the hippocampus, and the striatum. These regions are involved in various cognitive functions, such as memory, attention, and decision-making.

One of the key findings in schizophrenia research is the dysregulation of the dopamine system, which is responsible for regulating motivation, reward, and pleasure. People with schizophrenia have been found to have increased dopamine release in certain brain regions, which may contribute to their positive symptoms, such as hallucinations and delusions.

Additionally, studies have shown that people with schizophrenia have reduced gray matter volume in various brain regions, particularly in the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus. This reduction may contribute to the cognitive deficits associated with the illness, such as problems with attention and memory.

In recent years, there has been increasing interest in understanding the genetic basis of both panic disorder and schizophrenia. Researchers have identified several genes that may be associated with an increased risk of developing these disorders, such as the COMT gene, which is involved in the breakdown of dopamine.

Moreover, studies have shown that there is a significant overlap in the genetic risk factors for both panic disorder and schizophrenia, suggesting that these disorders may share some common underlying biological mechanisms.

In conclusion, neurological research has provided valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of panic disorder and schizophrenia. While these disorders differ in their symptoms and presentation, they share some common biological features, such as abnormalities in neurotransmitter systems and brain regions. Further research in this area is essential for developing more effective treatments for these debilitating illnesses.

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