Write an annotated bibliography on Environmental health-Vehicle Emissions

Write an annotated bibliography on Environmental health-Vehicle Emissions

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Health Effects Institute. (2020). Traffic-Related Air Pollution: A Critical Review of the Literature on Emissions, Exposure, and Health Effects. The Health Effects Institute conducted a critical review of the literature on traffic-related air pollution to provide a comprehensive understanding of the health effects associated with exposure to vehicle emissions. The report covers the health impacts on various populations, including children, the elderly, and those with preexisting health conditions. The report also provides recommendations for future research and policy interventions.

World Health Organization. (2013). Health effects of particulate matter: policy implications for countries in Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia. This report published by the World Health Organization provides an overview of the health impacts of particulate matter (PM) emissions from transportation sources. The report examines the scientific evidence linking PM exposure to various health outcomes and provides policy recommendations to reduce emissions and protect public health.

Allen, R. W., Adar, S. D., Avol, E., Cohen, M., Curl, C. L., Larson, T., … & Kaufman, J. D. (2011). Modeling the residential infiltratio

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n of outdoor PM2.5 in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air). Environmental Health Perspectives, 119(8), 1190-1196. This study examines the infiltration of outdoor PM2.5 into homes and its impact on cardiovascular health. The study found that outdoor PM2.5 concentrations were higher in homes located near major roads and highways and that residential infiltration of PM2.5 was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

GBD 2019 Risk Factors Collaborators. (2020). Global burden of 87 risk factors in 204 countries and territories, 1990–2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of the global burden of disease associated with various risk factors, including outdoor air pollution. The study estimates that outdoor air pollution is responsible for over 4 million premature deaths globally each year, making it one of the leading risk factors for premature mortality.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2021). Transportation and Air Quality. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s website provides information on the agency’s efforts to reduce vehicle emissions and improve air quality. The website includes information on various programs, regulations, and initiatives aimed at reducing emissions from transportation sources, as well as resources for individuals and organizations looking to take action to reduce their own emissions.

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. (2018). Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Vehicles and Other Sources. This fact sheet published by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health provides information on the health effects of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure from vehicle emissions and other sources. The fact sheet includes information on symptoms of CO poisoning, ways to reduce exposure, and measures individuals can take to protect themselves and others from CO poisoning.

Overall, these sources provide a comprehensive overview of the health effects associated with vehicle emissions and the need for action to reduce emissions and protect public health. The literature underscores the importance of reducing exposure to particulate matter and other harmful pollutants emitted by transportation sources, and highlights the significant health benefits that could be achieved through effective policy interventions and individual actions.

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