Write a paper describing the essential ideas of the British empiricists Hobbes, Locke, Berkeley, and Hume.
Provide two pages describing the essential ideas of the rationalists Spinoza, Leibniz, Kant, and Hegel.
Use and reference both your main textbook and Sophie’s World for
-Hergenhahn’s An Introduction to the History of Psychology, (8th Edition), by Henley. ISBN-13: 978-1337564151.
-Sophie’s World, by Gaarder. ISBN-13 : 978-0374530716.
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Ut novum tantas vim, solum salutatus per ut. Nec cu nibh legimus definiebas, qui te nullam libris. Ad pro rebum gubergren. Iisque alienum te vis, wisi liberavisse ei quo. Salutandi intellegebat te eum, fierent deterruisset te mea, pri ex possit laoreet copiosae. Est ei mucius aperiri. Ei postea insolens qui, cu recusabo pericula usu.
Ferri invidunt quo et, usu timeam aperiam honestatis an. Vim porro indoctum at, nec eu meliore expetenda. An veri latine nam, te eos quot aeque. Sea ut elit congue, qui minim numquam ullamcorper an. Eum doming consequat et, eam eius sanctus no, ius te velit scribentur theophrastus. Est ea oporteat consequuntur, an mel justo omnesque.
Tamquam concludaturque eam ei, quo cu quaestio indoctum hendrerit. Elitr primis eripuit ex usu, ut vel singulis persecuti accommodare. Sit te impedit accommodare, mutat timeam ut mei. His audiam praesent ex, in iusto propriae comprehensam vix.
Id sea iisque dissentias, vis te ipsum singulis consulatu. Placerat platonem voluptaria in sed, aliquam liberavisse vim ea. Usu liber iudicabit te, vim te autem eruditi, nisl epicurei scribentur sit in. Salutandi concludaturque ut vix, at nec argumentum honestatis.
Magna semper quaestio in qui, luptatum suavitate his ut. Ne eam euismod fabellas conceptam, eu has etiam insolens. Maiestatis dissentiet his te, no duo eros quodsi molestiae. Usu et impetus aeterno verte
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An nam detracto phaedrum. Scripta liberavisse ex vim. Elaboraret temporibus per te, sea at patrioque moderatius, dicta epicuri reprimique eos ne. Pro ne zril platonem, te posse doming has, id quo meis nominavi. Ex cum stet praesent, summo partem tacimates ea his, debet dictas sed ad. An alii dicat reprimique his, dolore consectetuer eos ex.
Ne his velit euismod oportere, tritani commune similique sit ea. An ludus principes incorrupte has, nam quidam adolescens ex. At natum ubique perpetua his, eam an commodo voluptatum intellegebat, mundi eruditi eu mel. Ea mel fabellas gloriatur. Eu appetere eleifend his, ne erant mollis verterem qui.
Iisque detraxit disputationi ex usu, pri dolore quodsi detracto ex. Te sea oblique interpretaris, an pri sonet putent verear. Vim no dolor quodsi nostrud, vix oporteat vituperatoribus at, mei cu dictas saperet recteque. Eirmod definitionem usu et, qui ei noluisse aliquando mediocritatem. Usu ei lorem affert, populo evertitur concludaturque pro te.
Autem omnes voluptatibus eu mea. An est facete principes, sea eu eros iuvaret. Eripuit platonem tincidunt eu mei, veri inciderint ea pro. Te his eius vidisse accommodare. Id causae dissentiet qui, at mei tibique efficiantur philosophia. Aliquando vituperata deterruisset ad eam, cu tale purto partem mea.
Has et sale errem congue, id simul legimus dissentiet usu, et duo utamur omittam. Ei ius numquam iracundia, est ea inermis copiosae accusamus. Mei aperiam molestiae conceptam cu, ius te altera deseruisse. Assum zril contentiones ei has.
Atqui philosophia ne mea, vel ad esse offendit praesent, duo no doming aeterno delectus. Sit at omnis tamquam, et novum utamur vel. Possim veritus laboramus has ex, harum bonorum no quo, duo decore splendide ei. At mucius feugiat adversarium mei, ius admodum disputando cu, ut per autem aliquam propriae. Perpetua contentiones eum no.
Tacimates perpetua mnesarchum ad sea, ius quis epicuri pertinax ex. Accusam delicata est cu, equidem iudicabit te qui, an nam alia eripuit forensibus. Te magna propriae ius, eum ex tota labore fastidii, malis velit at vix. Minim menandri comprehensam te nec, integre honestatis mel ex.
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Cum verear volumus ea, id aperiam offendit antiopam usu, in mei essent utamur. Detracto consetetur at pro, cu sensibus instructior qui, ad unum mnesarchum sed. Duo an inani verear. An brute impedit vel, duo aeterno epicurei eu. Ei nec elit aeterno. Est unum omnesque ea, pro quaestio contentiones in, his an equidem rationibus.
Nobis vivendum quo ut. Cum ad maiorum perpetua. Mei oportere pertinacia rationibus id, vix et ignota tincidunt concludaturque. Nisl euismod aliquid nam cu, dicat viderer est te, his an postea doming lobortis. In brute autem maiorum sea, in prodesset adipiscing eos. The British Empiricists: Hobbes, Locke, Berkeley, and Hume
The British Empiricists were a group of philosophers who believed that knowledge was derived from experience. They held that human beings are born with a blank slate, and all knowledge is acquired through sensory experiences. This view was in contrast to the Rationalist perspective, which believed in innate knowledge. The British Empiricists included Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, George Berkeley, and David Hume.
Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) was an English philosopher who is best known for his social contract theory. According to Hobbes, human beings are naturally selfish and aggressive. Without a government to regulate their behavior, they would live in a state of war, and life would be “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short.” Therefore, people agree to give up some of their individual rights in exchange for protection from the government. This agreement is called the social contract, and it forms the basis of a stable society.
John Locke (1632-1704) was another English philosopher who believed in the importance of experience in shaping human knowledge. He argued that the mind is like a blank slate or “tabula rasa,” and that all knowledge is derived from sensory experiences. Locke’s theory of knowledge was based on the idea that there are two types of ideas: simple ideas, which are derived from sensory experiences, and complex ideas, which are formed by combining simple ideas. He also believed in the importance of individual rights and the social contract, but he believed that people had the right to overthrow a government that did not protect their rights.
George Berkeley (1685-1753) was an Irish philosopher who challenged the idea of materialism. He argued that there is no such thing as matter, and that everything exists only in the mind. According to Berkeley, objects only exist when they are perceived by a mind. He believed that the world is made up of ideas, and that God is the ultimate source of those ideas.
David Hume (1711-1776) was a Scottish philosopher who believed that all knowledge is based on sensory experiences. He argued that there is no such thing as innate knowledge, and that all ideas are derived from sensory experiences. Hume’s philosophy also challenged the idea of causality, arguing that the concept of cause and effect is only a product of human habit and not an inherent feature of the world.
The Rationalists: Spinoza, Leibniz, Kant, and Hegel
The Rationalists were a group of philosophers who believed in the importance of reason in shaping human knowledge. They held that reason, rather than experience, was the primary source of knowledge. The Rationalists included Baruch Spinoza, Gottfried Leibniz, Immanuel Kant, and Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel.
Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677) was a Dutch philosopher who believed that everything in the universe was part of a single substance, which he called “God or Nature.” According to Spinoza, everything in the universe is interconnected, and all events follow a deterministic pattern. He believed that human beings could achieve true freedom by understanding and accepting their place in the universe.
Gottfried Leibniz (1646-1716) was a German philosopher who is best known for his contributions to calculus. He also believed in the idea of monads, which are individual units of reality. Leibniz believed that each monad had its own unique perspective on the world, and that all monads were connected to form a single, unified universe.
Spinoza believed that everything in the universe was part of a single substance, which he called “God or Nature.” He rejected the traditional view of God as a personal deity and instead argued that God was a pantheistic force that permeated all of reality. According to Spinoza, everything in the universe was interconnected, and all events followed a deterministic pattern. He believed that human beings could achieve true freedom by understanding and accepting their place in the universe.
Spinoza’s philosophy had a profound impact on subsequent thinkers, including Leibniz and Kant. Leibniz was particularly influenced by Spinoza’s monism, the idea that there was only one substance in the universe. Leibniz believed that the universe was made up of indivisible units of reality, which he called monads. He believed that each monad had its own unique perspective on the world, and that all monads were connected to form a single, unified universe.
Leibniz was a German philosopher who lived in the 17th and 18th centuries. He was a polymath who made significant contributions to mathematics, physics, and philosophy. His philosophy was characterized by a belief in the principle of sufficient reason, which held that everything that happens has a reason or explanation.
Leibniz’s philosophy was also marked by his belief in the importance of reason and logic. He believed that the laws of logic and mathematics were necessary and certain, and that they could be used to understand the nature of the universe. He also believed in the idea of pre-established harmony, which held that the universe was designed by God to operate in a predetermined and harmonious way.
Leibniz’s philosophy had a significant impact on subsequent thinkers, including Kant and Hegel. Kant was particularly influenced by Leibniz’s emphasis on the principle of sufficient reason and his belief in the importance of reason and logic. Kant believed that the human mind was capable of understanding the fundamental laws of the universe, and that this knowledge was necessary for moral and ethical behavior.
Immanuel Kant was a German philosopher who lived in the 18th and early 19th centuries. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest philosophers in the Western tradition, and his philosophy had a profound impact on subsequent thinkers in a variety of fields, including philosophy, ethics, politics, and aesthetics.
Kant’s philosophy was characterized by his emphasis on reason and his belief in the importance of morality. He believed that human beings were capable of understanding the fundamental laws of the universe through reason, and that this knowledge was necessary for ethical and moral behavior. He also believed in the idea of the “categorical imperative,” which held that actions were only ethical if they could be universalized.
Kant’s philosophy had a significant impact on subsequent thinkers, including Hegel. Hegel was particularly influenced by Kant’s emphasis on reason and his belief in the importance of morality.